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Full text of "Infantry drill regulations. Manual of arms adapted to the Springfield rifle, caliber .45 and to the magazine rifle, caliber .30"

MANUAL OF ARMS. 



ADAPTED TO THE 

SPRINGFIELD RIFLE, CALIBER .45 

AND TO THE 

MAGAZINE RIFLE, CALIBER .30. 



NEW YORK 

D. APPLETOX and COMPANY, 

1900. 



A FRENCH VOLUNTEER OF THE WAR OF 
INDEPENDENCE. By the Chevalier de Pont- 
GIBAUD. Translated and edited by Robert B. Douglas. 
With Introduction and Frontispiece. i2mo. Cloth, 
$1.50. 

" A new light is thrown upon the days of 1776 in this delightful 
book. . . . The Chevalier tells his story well." — New York Mail 
and Express. 

" It could not be possible to overrate the excellence of this book, 
either as a romance of French- American history, or as the personal 
memoir of a notable character. Clothed in terms of the purest 
diction, dealing with historic facts of the most intense interest, 
brimful of witty don-mots, it carries the reader over an enchanted 
ground of historical adventures, from the famed valley of Auvergne 
in the heart of France, to Valley Forge in Pennsylvania, and thence 
over all the hallowed pathways trodden by the fathers of American 
liberation." — Philadelphia Item. 



A SOLDIER OF MANHATTAN, and his Adven- 
tures at Ticonderoga and Quebec. By J. A. 
Altsheler, author of " The Sun of Saratoga." No. 
225, Appletons' Town and Country Library. i2mo. 
Cloth, $1.00 ; paper, 50 cents. 

11 Stories of colonial times are very popular at the present time, 
and the incidents of this story are of a nature to keep up the 
reader's interest throughout. The customs and manners of the 
times are well described, and the author has caught the spirit of the 
epoch thoroughly."— Baltimore Sun. 

" There is a pretty international love story running through the 
novel. . . . There are many interesting descriptions of the social 
life of the times in the book."— New York Press. 



D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK. 



MANUAL OF ARMS. 



ADAPTED TO THE 

SPRINGFIELD RIFLE, CALIBER .45 

AND TO THE 

MAGAZINE RIFLE, CALIBER .30. 



NEW YORK 

D. APPLETON and COMPANY, 

I9OO 



INFANTRY- DRILL REGULATIONS. 

Circular, ) War Department, 

v Adjutant General's Office, 

No. 16. ) Washington, iuly 28, 1897. 

The following adaptation of the manual for the 
service magazine rifle caliber .30, to the Springfield 
rifle, caliber .45, is approved and published for use 
when required. 

By order of the Secretary of War: 

Sam'l, Breck, 
Acting Adjutant General. 

War Department, 
Washington, D. C, June 17, 1895. 
jlo insure uniformity of practice in the Manual of 
Arms with the rifle, caliber .30, recently adopted, the 
following modifications in the Manual of Arms, and 
of the Infantry Drill Regulations otherwise, and in 
the Manual of Guard Duty, to conform to changes 
made in the Manual of Arms, or deemed advisable 
in connection therewith, are established provisionally 
and published for the government of the Army 
pending a complete revision of the Infantry Drill 
Regulations. 

Daniel S. Lamont, 

Secretary of War, 



Copyright, 1897, 
By W. C. & F. P. Church. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLriER. 



INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION WITH ARMS. 

1. The recruit should, as soon as possible, be taught 
the use of his rifle, its care and preservation. 

When fair progress has been made in the Individual 
Instruction without Arms, the recruit will be taught 
the manual of arms ; instruction without arms and that 
with arms alternating. 

Part of each drill with arms should be devoted to 
marching. 

2, The manual of arms is explained for double rank 
but for the instruction of recruits it is first executed 
in single rank, omitting reference to the rear rank 

At the command fall in the recruits, usually not ex- 
ceeding four, assemble (Par. 20, D. P.) pieces* at order 
arms. 

The piece shall not be carried loaded, nor with car- 
tridges in the magazine except when specially ordered 
A ., P revent accidents, the chamber wilf be opened 
and the magazine will be examined (Par. 12) whenever 
the squad is first formed, and again just before beino- 
dismissed. This rule is general G 

4. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time ■ 
the recruits will at first be required to give their whole 
attention to the details of the motions, the cadence 
being gradually acquired as they become accustomed 
to handling their arms. 

Before requiring recruits to take a position or execute 
a motion for the first time, the instructor will execute 
the same for illustration ; after which he will cause 
them to execute it by themselves, then to execute it 
together at command. 

The movements relative to the cartridge, fixino-and 
unfixing oayonet, adjusting sight, breaking and form- 
ing stack, are executed with promptness and regularity 
but not in cadence. J * 



6 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

5. Being at a halt, the movements are, for the pur- 
pose of instruction, divided into motions and executed 
in detail ; in this case the command of execution de- 
termines the prompt execution of the first motion, and 
the commands, two, three, etc., that of the other 
motions. 

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor 
first cautions : By the numbers ; all movements divided 
into motions are then executed as above explained 
until he cautions : Without the numbers ; or commands 
movements other than those in the manual of arms.* 



^ 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 7 

MANUAL OF ARMS. 

General Rules. 

1. 1st. In all positions of the left hand at the balance 
(center of gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps 
the piece except in present arms and load, in which two 
positions the thumb is extended along the stock ; the 
sling is included in the grasp of the hand. 

2d. In all positions of the piece " diagonally across 
the body,"* the positions of the piece, left arm. and hand, 
are the same as in port arms. 

3d. In resuming the order from any position in the 
manual, the motion next to the last concludes with the 
butt of the piece about three inches from the ground, 
the left hand above and near the right, steadying the 
piece, fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist 
straight and inclined downward. 

4th. When the bolt is closed upon an empty cham- 
ber the trigger should be pulled to relieve the main- 
spring from compression. 

5th. The "cut-off" will be kept turned up except 
when loading from the magazine. 

6th. When the piece is carried with a cartridge in the 
chamber it should be locked, that is. with the safety 
lock turned fully to the right. 

2. The recruit being in the position of the soldier, 
the instructor will first cause him to place his piece in 
the following position : 

Position of Order Arms. 

The butt rests evenly on the ground, barrel to the 
rear, the toe of the butt on a line with and touching 
the toe of the right shoe, arms hanging naturally, 
elbows near the body, right hand holding the piece be- 
tween the thumb and fingers, the first two fingers in 
front, the others in rear. 



8 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

3. Being at order arms : 1. Present, 2. arms. 
Carry the piece in front of the center of the body 

with the right hand, barrel to the rear and vertical, 
grasp it with the left hand at the balance, forearm 
horizontal and resting against the body. (TWO) Grasp 
the small of the stock with the right hand. 
• 1. Order, 2. arms. 

Let go with the right hand and regrasp the piece 
just above the lower band, back of the hand to the 
right ; let go with the left hand, carry the piece with 
the right to the right side, barrel to the rear, hand near 
the thigh, butt about three inches from the ground, 
left hand steadying the piece above the right, fingers 
extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and in- 
clined downward, (two) Lower the piece gently to the 
ground with the right hand, drop the left quickly by 
the side, and take the position of order arms. 

4. Being at order arms : 1. Port, 2. arms. 

Raise and throw the piece diagonally across the body, 
magazine to the front, grasp it smartly with both 
hands, the right, palm down, at the small c-f the stock; 
the left, paim up, at the balance, thumb clasping the 
piece, barrel sloping to the left and crossing opposite 
the junction of the neck with the left shoulder; right 
forearm horizontal ; left forearm resting against the 
body ; piece near the body. 

In the instruction of the recruit, to prevent interfer- 
ence with or apprehension by the man on his left 
especially when bayonets are fixed, care should be taken 
in coming to the position of port arms, and like 
positions of the piece, that the muzzle be not swung to 
the rear nor dropped farther to the left than necessary 
for taking the position. 

Being at port arms : 1. Order, 2. ARMS. 

Let go with the right hand, lower and carry the piece 
to the right with the left hand, regrasp it with the 
right just above the lower band, back of hand to the 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 9 

front, let go with the left hand, lower and turn the 
piece with the right, bringing the barrel to the rear, 
butt about three inches from the ground, and hand 
near the thigh ; steady the piece in this position with 
the left hand above "the right, fingers extended and 
joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclined down- 
ward, (two) Lower the piece gently to the ground 
with the right hand, drop the left by the side, and take 
the position of order arms. 

5. Being at present arms : 1. Port, 2. arms. 

Carry the piece diagonally across the body and take 
the position of port arms. 

Being at port arms : 1. Present, 2. arms. 

Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the 
center of the body, barrel to the rear, and take the po- 
sition of present arms. 

6. Being at order arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. arms. 
Raise and carry the piece diagonally across the body 

with the right hand, magazine to the front, grasp it at 
the balance with the left hand, palm up, thumb clasp- 
ing the piece ; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, 
embracing it, heel between the first two fingers, the 
thumb and fingers closed on the stock, the barrel slop- 
ing to the left and crossing opposite the junction of the 
neck with the left shoulder ; left forearm resting against 
the body, the piece, left arm, and hand being in the 
same position as at port arms, (two) Raise and place 
the piece on the right shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard 
in the hollow of the shoulder, the right elbow against 
(or near) the side, the right hand retaining its grasp of 
the butt, the hand directly in front of the elbow, at the 
same time slip the left hand, fingers extended and 
joined, down opposite the bolt handle, (three) Drop 
the left hand by the side. 

Care should be taken in the instruction of recruits 
that in the position of Right Shoulder Arms the right 
hand is kept directly in front of the elbow, which in- 



10 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

sures steadiness of the piece on the shoulder, sufficient 
elevation of the muzzle to prevent interference with the 
men in the rear rank, and uniformity of appearance in 
the position of the piece. 

Being at right shoulder arms : 1. Order, 2. arms. 

Press the butt down quickly with the right hand and 
throw the piece diagonally across the body, grasp it 
with the left hand at the balance, the position of the 
left arm, hand, and piece, being the same as in port 
arms, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt. 
(two) Let go with the right hand, lower and carry the 
piece to the right with the left hand, at the same time 
regrasp the piece with the right just above the lower 
band, back of hand to the front, let go with the left 
hand, lower and turn the piece with the right, bringing 
the barrel to the rear, butt about three inches from the 
ground, and hand near the thigh ; steady the piece in 
this position with the left hand above the right, fingers 
extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and in- 
clined downward, (three) Lower the piece gently to 
the ground with the right hand, drop the left by the 
side, and take the position of order arms. 

7. Being at port arms : 1. Right shoulder, 2. arms. 

Change the right hand to the butt, heel between the 
first and second fingers, thumb and fingers closed on 
the stock, and place the piece on the right shoulder, 
barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder, 
the right elbow against (or near) the side, the right 
hand directly in front of elbow, at the same time 
slip the left hand, fingers extended and joined, down 
opposite the bolt handle, (two) Drop the left hand by 
the side. 

Being at right shoulder arms : 1. Port, 2. arms. 

Press the butt down quickly with the right hand and 
throw the piece diagonally across the body, magazine 
at the front, grasp it with the left hand at the balance, 
as in port arms, the right hand retaining its grasp at 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 11 

the butt, (two) Change the right hand to the small of 
the stock, and take the position of port arms. 

8. Beingat right shoulder arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. 
Press the butt down quickly with the right hand and 

throw the piece diagonally across the body, magazine 
to the front, grasp it with the left hand at the balance, 
as in port arms, the right hand retaining its grasp of 
the butt, (two) Change the right hand to the small of 
the stock and take the position of port arms, (three) 
Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the 
center of the body, barrel to the rear, and take the 
position of present arms. 

Being at present arms : 1. Right shoulder, 2. arms. 
Take the position of port arms, (two) Change the 
right hand to the butt, heel between the first and second 
fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock, and place 
the piece on the right shoulder, barrel up, trigger 
guard in hollow of the shoulder, the right elbow against 
(or near) the side, the hand directly in front of elbow, 
at the same time slip the left hand, fingers extended 
and joined, down opposite to bolt handle, (three) 
Drop the left hand by the side. 

Rifle Salute. 

9. Being at right shoulder arms : Carry the left hand 
smartly to the small of the stock, forearm horizontal, 
palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended 
and joined, forefinger against the piece, (two) Drop 
the left hand by the side. 

The first motion of the salute is made six yards be- 
fore passing the officer, holding the hand at the small 
of the stock until the salute is acknowledged or the 
officer passed. 

Indoors, the salute is made from the position of order 
arms ; carry the left hand smartly to the right side, 
forearm horizontal, or nearly so, palm of the hand 



12 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

clown, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger 
against piece, (two) Drop the left hand by the side. 

The rifle salute is prescribed for individual soldiers 
with arms, except sentinels who salute by presenting 
arms. 

The Rests. 

10. Fall out, Best, and At ease are executed as with- 
out arms. 

On resuming the attention take the position of order 
arms. 

11. Being at order arms : 1. Parade, 2. rest. 
Carry the right foot six inches straight to the rear, 

left knee slightly bent, carry the muzzle in front of the 
center of the body, barrel to the left, grasp the piece 
with the left hand just below the stacking swivel, and 
with the right hand below and against the left. 

1. Squad, 2. attention. 

Resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece 
opposite the right breast. 

12. To dismiss the squad. 

The instructor commands : 1. Port, 2. ARMS, 3. dis- 
missed. 

When the instruction has progressed to include load- 
ing, to insure that no cartridge is left in the chamber or 
magazine, the instructor commands: 1. Port, 2. arms 
(sees that the cut-off is turned up), 3. open chamber 

AND MAGAZINE, 4. CLOSE CHAMBER AND MAGAZINE, 5. DIS- 
MISSED. 

After closing the chamber and magazine the trigger 
is pulled. 

13. Being at order arms : 1. Fix, 2. bayonet. 
Execute parade rest ; grasp the handle of the bayonet 

with the right hand, back of the hand toward the body. 
Draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the 
barrel, glancing at the muzzle ; resume the order, drop 
the left hand at the side. 

14. Being at order arms : 1. Unfix, 2. BAYONET. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 13 

Take the position of parade rest, grasp the handle of 
the bayonet firmly with the right hand, press the spring 
with the forefinger of the left hand, raise the bayonet 
until the handle is about six inches above the muzzle of 
the piece, drop the point to the left, back of hand to- 
ward the body, and glancing at the scabbard return the 
bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and 
body ; regrasp the piece with the right hand and re- 
sume the order. 

15. If marching, the bayonet is fixed or unfixed in the 
most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece 
returned to the position in which it was when the order 
to fix or unfix bayonet was given. 

16. Being at order arms, bayonet fixed : 1. Charge, 

2. BAYONET^ 

Half face to the right, carrying the right heel six 
indies to the rear and three inches to the right of the 
•left heel, at the same time raise the piece with the right 
hand inclining the barrel to the front, grasp it with the 
left at the balance, back of hand down, thumb clasping 
piece, elbow against the body, grasp the small of the 
stock with the right hand and bring the point of the 
bayonet to the height of the chin, right hand supporting 
the stock firmly against the front of right hip, the body 
inclin itly forward. 

1. I J. ARMS. 

Face to the front, at the same time let go the piece 
with the right hand and lower it to the right side with 
left nan i it with the right just above the lower 

band, back of hand to the right, and lower the p • 
bringing the butt about three inches from the ground 
and hand near the thigh: steady the piece in this 

sition with the left hand above the right, fingers 
extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and 
inclined downward, (two) Lower the piece gently to 
the ground with the right hand, drop the left by the 
side, and take the position of order arms. 



14 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

17. Being at port arms, bayonet fixed : 1. Charge. 

2. BAYONET. 

Half face to the right, carrying the right heel six 
inches to the rear and three inches to the right of the 
left heel, and at the same time bring the piece to the 
position of charge bayonet. 

To resume port arms : 1. Port, 2. arms. 

Face to the front, and at the same time take the posi- 
tion of port arms. 

18. Being at right shoulder arms : 1. Charge, 2. bav- 
onet. 

Press the butt down quickly with the right hand and 
throw the piece diagonally across the body, magazine 
to the front, grasp it with the left hand as in port arms, 
the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt, (two) 
Change the right hand to the small of the stock, (three) 
Half face to the right, carrying the right heel six inches 
to the rear and three inches to the right of the left heel,- 
and at the same time bring the piece down to the right 
side and take the position of charge bayonet. 

Being at charge bayonet : 1. Right shoulder, 2. arms. 

Face to the front and at the same time take the posi- 
tion of port arms, (two) Change the right hand to the 
butt, heel between the first and second fingers, thumb 
and fingers closed on the stock, and place the piece on 
che right shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard in the 
hollow of the shoulder, the right elbow against (or 
near) the side, the hand directly in front of the elbow, 
at the same time slip the left hand, fingers extended 
und joined, down opposite the bolt handle, (three) 
Drop the left hand to the side. 

Positions Kneeling and Lying Down. 

19. The movements of kneeling, lying down, and 
rising are first taught without arms ; they are executed 
as with arms, except that in the position kneeling the 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 15 

right hand rests on the right thigh, and in moving to 
and from the lying position the right hand is placed on 
the ground ; in the position lying down the forearms 
are against each other on the ground, left arm in front. 

20. Being at order arms : kneel. 

Each front rank man half faces to the right, carrying 
the right foot so that the toe shall be about ten inche? 
to the rear and ten inches to the left of the left heel ; 
kneel on right knee, bending the left, left toe slightly 
inclined to the right, right leg pointing directly to the 
right ; weight of body resting on right heel ; place left 
forearm across left thigh, hand hanging naturally ; the 
piece remains in the position of order arms, right hand 
grasping it above the balance. This is the position of 
order kneeling. 

Each rear rank man steps off obliquely to the right 
with the left foot, planting the toe opposite the middle 
of the interval to his right and in line with the left heel 
of his front rank man , at the same time placing the butt 
of his piece against his left foot, the toe of butt in line 
with toe of foot ; he then kneels as prescribed for the 
front rank. 

21. Being at the order kneeling ; rise 

Rise and take the position of order arms ; the rear 
rank men covering their file leaders. 

22. Being at the order kneeling : lie down. 

Each front rank man places the right knee against the 
left heel, (two) Draw back the left foot and place the 
knee on the ground ; place the left hand well forward 
on the ground and lie flat on the belly, thus inclining the 
body about thirty-five degrees to the right ; the piece is 
lowered at the same time with the right hand, toe rest- 
ing on the ground, barrel up, muzzle off the ground, left 
hand at the balance, left elbow on the ground, right hand 
at the small of the stock, opposite the neck. This is the 
position lying down. 

The rear rank men move back thirty-six inches in the 



16 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

most convenient manner without rising, and lie down 
as prescribed for the front rank. 

23. Being in the position lying down : rise. 

Place the left hand on the ground and raise the body 
on the knees ; draw up and place the left foot by the 
side of the right knee, raise and place the piece in the 
position of the order kneeling, (rwo) Rise and take the 
position of order arms ; the rear rank men close to fac- 
ing distance on their file leaders. 

24. Being at the order standing : LIE down. 

Each front rank man takes the position of order kneel- 
ing, except that the right knee is placed against the left 
heel, (two) Draw back the left foot and place the knee 
on the ground ; place the left hand well forward on the 
ground and lie flat on the belly, thus inclining the body 
about thirty-five degrees to the right ; the piece is low- 
ered at the same time with the right hand, toe resting 
on the ground, barrel up, muzzle off the ground, left 
hand at the balance, left elbow on the ground, right hand 
at the small of the stock opposite the neck. 

The rear rank men step back thirty-six inches and lie 
down as prescribed for the front rank. 

25. Being in the position lying down : KNEEL. 
Place the left hand on the ground and raise the body 

on the knees ; draw up and place the left foot by the side 
of the right knee, raise and place the piece in the position 
of the order kneeling ; the rear rank men take the posi- 
tion of the order kneeling* and then move forward thirty- 
six inches in the most convenient manner without rising. 

To Load. 

26. The recruits are at first taught to load and fire 
without using cartridges ; after a few lessons they should 
use dummy cartridges, and when well instructed, the 
drill may close with a few rounds of blank cartridges. 

27. No cartridges will be used, except when indicated 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 17 

by the words with dummy {blank or ball) cartridge, pre- 
ceding the command load. This rule is general. 

28. Being* in line, standing at the order : 1. Squad, 
2. load. 

At the command load, each rear rank man steps off 
obliquely to the right with the left foot, planting the toe 
opposite the middle of the interval to his right and in 
line with the left heel of his front rank man ; the front 
rank men half face to the right ; both ranks then carry 
the rig lit heel six inches to the rear and three inches to 
the right of the left heel, feet nearly at right angles, and 
at the same time raise the piece with the right hand and 
drop it into the left at the balance, muzzle at the height 
of the chin, left elbow against ttie body, small of the 
stock at the waist, right hand grasping the small of the 
stock, (two) Look toward the chamber, grasp the han- 
dle of the bolt with the thumb and fingers of the right 
hand, turn it upward and draw the bolt back, thus 
opening the chamber (slip the cartridge box, if worn, to 
the right hip and open), take a cartridge between the 
thumb and first two fingers and place it in the receiver, 
regrasp the handle of bolt with right hand, push the 
bolt forward and turn the handle down, thus closing 
the chamber ; cast the eyes to the front, carry the right 
hand to the small of the stock. This position is desig- 
nated for reference as that of load ; the piece is at the 
"ready," being loaded and the safety lock turned to the 
left. 

If kneeling the position of the piece is similar — the left 
forearm rests on the left thigh, the left hand grasping 
the piece at the balance and the muzzle is at the height 
of the chin. 

If lying down the left hand steadies the piece at the 
balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the 
muzzle off the ground. 

When lying down in double rank the rear rank men 
do not load. 



18 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

The piece being in the position of load and locked, 
that is with the safety lock turned to the right, is 
brought to the ready by the commands : 1. Squad, 

2. READY, 

At the second command turn the safety lock to the 
left with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, 
and return the hand to the small of the stock. 

29. Being in any position, pieces loaded : 1. Draw, 

2. CARTRIDGE. 

Take the position of load, turn the cut-off fully up, if 
not already there, open the chamber gently to avoid 
complete ejection of the cartridge from the receiver, 
take and return cartridge to box or belt, close chamber, 
pull trigger, and carry the right hand to small of stock. 

30. Pieces loaded, and being in the position of load 
or at the ready, to order arms : 1. Lock, 2. pieces, 

3. Order, 4. arms. 

At the command pieces, turn the safety lock fully to 
the right : at the command arms, take the position of 
order arms, the front rank men similarly as from charge 
bayonet ; the rear rank men raise the muzzles of their 
pieces (to clear the front rank men) step back and cover 
their file leaders, at the same time bringing the piece 
to the position of order arms. 

If kneeling, both ranks take the order kneeling. 

If sights are raised (par. 37) they should be laid down 
at the first command 

Cartridge boxes, if used, are closed after executing 
the order, order kneeling, position lying down, or cease 
firing (par. 62). 

31. Being at the ready : aim. 

Raise the piece with both hands and support the butt 
firmly against the hollow of the right shoulder, right 
thumb extended across the stock inclined forward and 
diagonally to the left, barrel horizontal : slip the left 
hand back to the guard, fingers closed on the magazine, 
left elbow resting against the body, and as far to the 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 19 

right as it can be placed with ease, right elbow as high 
as the shoulder ; incline the head slightly forward and 
a little to the right, cheek against the stock, left eye 
closed, right eye looking through the notch of the rear 
sight so as to perceive the top of the front sight ; second 
joint of forefinger resting lightly against the front of 
the trigger, but not pressing it. 

Each rear rank man aims through the interval at the 
right of his file leader, and inclines slightly forward, to 
advance the muzzle of his piece beyond the front rank. 
When lying down in double rank, the rear rank men do 
not aim nor fire. 

32. In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the 
left knee, point of elbow in front of knee cap. 

In aiming lying down, raise the piece with both hands 
and slip it through the left to the trigger guard ; rest 
on both elbows and press the butt firmly against the 
right shoulder. 

33. FIRE. 

Press the finger against the trigger ; fire without de- 
ranging the aim, and without lowering or turning the 
piece. 

34. LOAD. 

Lower the piece to the position of load, and load. 

35. The exercise is continued by the commands : 
1. Squad, 2. aim, 3. fire, 4. load. 

If the instructor does not wish the pieces to be re- 
loaded after firing, in place of the command load he 
commands: 1. Order, 2. arms. 

At the command Order, bring the piece to the position 
of load, turn the cut-off up, if not already there, eject 
the empty shell by drawing the bolt back smartly, close 
the chamber, pull the trigger, lower the sight leaf, if 
raised, and carry the right hand to the small of the 
stock ; at the command Arms, take the position of 
order arms, the front rank men similarly as from charge 
bayonet ; the rear rank men rais^l the' muzzle of their 
2b 



20 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

pieces (to clear the front rank men) step back and cover 
their file leaders, at the same time bringing the piece 
to the position of order arms. 
If kneeling both ranks take the order kneeling. 

36. To accustom the recruits in the position of aim, 
to await the command fire: 1. Recover, 2. arms. 

At the command recover, withdraw the finger from 
the trigger ; at the command arms, take the position of 
load, the piece being retained at the ready. 

In recovering arms when kneeling or lying down, the 
piece is brought to the position for loading kneeling-, or 
lying down respectively. 

37. When the recruits are thoroughly instructed in 
the adjustments of the sig'ht and the principles of aim- 
ing as laid down in the Firing Regulations for Small 
Arms, they will be required to aim, using the gradua- 
tions of the rear sight corresponding to the distances 
indicated. For this purpose the instructor commands : 
1. At (so many) yards, 2. Squad, 3. AIM. 

At the first command, both ranks take the position of 
load and adjust the sight with the right hand. 

The instructor assures himself by careful inspection 
that each man sets his sight at the range indicated ; 
when satisfied that the subject is fully comprehended, 
he will exercise the men in aiming at a designated ob- 
ject. For this purpose he commands : 1. At that tree 

(or At __.), 2. At (so many) yards, 3. Squad, 

4. AIM. 

At the first command, both ranks take the position of 
load and fix the eyes on the object indicated; at the 
second command adjust the sight and immediately fix 
the eyes upon the object again. 

38. The distance announced in the command should 
be, as nearly as possible, the true distance of the object 
indicated. 

The men should be practiced in aiming at objects 
above and below therm 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 21 

# 

To Fill the Magazine. 

39. FILL MAGAZINE. 

Take the position of load,, if not already there, open 
the gate of the magazine with the right thumb, take 
five cartridges from the box or belt, and place them, 
with the bullets to the front, in the magazine, turning 
the barrel slightly to the left to facilitate the insertion 
of the cartridges ; close the gate, and carry the right 
hand to the small of the stock. 

40. To load from the magazine the command "From 
magazine " will be given pt eceding that of " load " ; the 
cut-off will be turned dozen on coming to the position of 
load. 

To resume loading from the belt the command "From 
Belt'' will be given preceding the command "load" ; 
the cut-off will be turned up "n coming to the position 
of load. 

The commands from magazine and from belt, indicat- 
ing the change in the manner of loading will not be 
repeated in subsequent commands. 

The words from belt applv to cartridge box as well as 
belt. 

In loading from the magazine care should be taken 
to push the bolt fully forward and turn the handle 
down before drawing the bolt back, as otherwise the 
extractor will not catch the cartridge in the chamber, 
and jamming will occur with the cartridge following. 

To Empty the Magazine. 

4i. 1. Empty, 2. magazine. 

Take the position of load, turn the cut-off fully down 
if not already there, and alternately open gently and 
close the chamber until all the cartridges are removed ; 
then return cartridges to box or belt, pull the trigger, 
and turn the cut-off up. 

42. Being at order arms : 1. Op^, 2. BOXES. 

Steady the piece by grasping it with the left hand 



22 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

% 

just below the stacking swivel, forearm against the 
body ; open the box with the rig'ht hand and resume 
the order. 

In a similar manner each man, as his box is inspected, 
closes it and resumes the order. 

43. Being- at order arms : 1. Inspection, 2. arms. 
At the command arms, bayonets are fixed and car- 
tridge boxes opened. 

Each man, as the inspector approaches him, executes 
port arms, open chamber and magazine, and then 
embraces the butt with the right hand, heel between the 
first two fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock. 

The inspector takes the piece with the right hand, 
grasping it just below the lower band, back of hand 
down (the man dropping the hands by the side), in- 
spects it, and hands it back in the position in which 
received. The man receives it with the left hand at the 
balance, closes chamber and gate of magazine if open, 
pulls the trigger, resumes port arms, comes to order 
arms, and unfixes bayonet. 

As the inspector returns the piece the next man 
executes inspection arms, and so on through the squad. 
Should the piece be inspected without handling, the 
man closes chamber and gate of magazine, pulls the 
trigger, grasps the piece with the right hand at the 
small of the stock, comes to order arms, and unfixes 
bayonet, when the inspector passes to the next man, 
who immediately executes inspection arms, 

44. The inspection of the arms begins on the right, 
after which the inspector may pass in rear and inspect 
boxes from left to right. 

Boxes are closed as soon as inspected. 

Stack Arms. 

45. Three pieces only are used in making a stack ; 
pieces not so used i^\ in this connection, termed loose 
pieces. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 23 

Preparatory to stacking arms, tm? squad must have 
counted fours and must be in line at the order. 

46. 1. Stack, 2. arms. 

At the command stack, each even number of the 
front rank raises his piece with the right hand, grasps 
it with the left at the upper band, and rests the butt 
between his feet, barrel to the front, muzzle inclining 
slightly to the front and opposite the center of the 
interval on his right, the thumb and forefinger raising 
the stacking swivel ; each even number of the rear 
rank then passes his piece, barrel to the rear, to his file 
leader, who grasps it between the bands with his right 
hand and throws the butt about twenty-eight inches in 
advance of his own and opposite the middle of the in- 
terval, the right hand slipping to the upper band, the 
thumb and forefinger raising the stacking swivel, 
which he engages with that of his own piece ; each odd 
number of the front rank raises his piece with the 
right hand, carries it well forward, barrel to the front, 
the left hand guiding the stacking swivel, engages the 
lower hook of the swivel of his own piece with the free 
hook of that of the even number of t lie rear rank ; he 
then turns the barrel outward into the angle formed by 
the other two pieces and holds the butt about four 
inches above the ground and six inches in front of the 
line of the toes. 

At the command arms, each odd number of the front 
rank lowers the butt of his piece to the ground. 

The stacks being formed, the pieces of the odd num- 
bers in the rear rank are passed to the even numbers in 
the front rank, who lay them on the stacks. The 
pieces of the guides and* the file closers are laid on the 
stacks at the same time. 

Each man on finishing handling pieces, takes the po- 
sition of the soldier. 

The instructor may then rest or dismiss the squad, 
leaving the arms stacked. 



24 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

On assembling, fne men take their places in rear of 
the stacks. 

47. 1. Take, 2. arms. 

At the command take, the loose pieces are returned 
by the even numbers ; each even number of the front 
rank then grasps his own piece with the left hand, the 
piece of his rear rank man with his rig'ht hand, grasp- 
ing both between the bands ; each odd number of the 
front rank grasps his piece in the same way with the 
right hand. 

At the command arms, each odd number of the front 
rank disengages his own piece by raising the butt from 
the ground and then turning the piece to the right, de- 
taching the piece from the stack ; each even number of 
die front rank disengages and detaches his piece by 
turning it to the left, and then passes the piece of his 
rear rank man to him, and all resume the order. 

Unless care is taken by the odd number to hold and 
place the butt of his piece in front of the line of the 
toes, there is danger that the front sight will be caught 
and bent by the ramrod of the piece of the even number 
on turning the piece to make or break the stack. 

Should any lour have numbers two and three blank 
files, number one rear rank will take the place of num- 
ber two rear rank in making and breaking the stack; 
the stacks made or broken, he resumes his post. 

48. Being in single rank, arms are stacked and taken 
on the same principles as in the double rank ; at the 
preparatory command number three steps back and 
covers number two; numbers two and three execute 
what has been explained for the even numbers of the 
front and rear rank, respectively; number three then 
resumes his place; number one uses his piece as ex- 
plained for the odd number of the front rank. The 
piece of number lour is passed, as explained for the 
odd numbers of the rear rank. 

Like precaution as in double rank should be used in 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 25 

making and breaking stack to avoid injury to the 
sights. 

49. The following positions of the piece are in- 
tended mainly for use in extended order and route 
marches. Whenever the commands for any of these 
are given, the piece wilJ be shifted in the most con- 
venient manner, but for desirable uniformity in the 
method of carrying the piece from the right shoulder 
to the left shoulder and return when in close order, 
the method therefor is prescribed in paragraph 51. 

50. 1. Trail, 2. arms. 

The piece is grasped with the right hand just above 
the balance, right arm slightly bent, barrel up, muzzle 
inclined slightly to the front. 

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience 
to others, as on the firing line, the piece may be grasped 
at the balance and the muzzle lowered until the piece is 
horizontal ; a similar position in the left hand may be 
used in like case. 

The piece should be brought to the position of trail 
arms on coming indoors. 

51. Being at right shoulder arms : 

1. Left shoulder, 2. arms. Press the butt down 
quickly with the right hand and bring the piece to 
nearly a vertical position without lowering it, sprasp it 
wiili the left hand at the small of the stock and carry 
and place the piece on the left shoulder, barrel up, 
trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder; replace 
the right hand at the butt with the left hand, heel be- 
tween the first and second fingers, thumb and fingers 
closed on the stock, elbow near the body, hand directly 
in front of the elbow, and drop the right hand by the 
side. 

1. Right shoulder, 2. arms. Press the butt down 
quickly with the left hand and bring the piece to nearly 
a vertical position without lowering' it, grasp it with the 
right hand at the small of the stock, and carry and place 



26 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

the piece on the right shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard 
in the hollow of the shoulder ; replace the left hand at 
the butt with the right hand, and take the position of 
right shoulder arms. 

52. 1. Sling, 2. arms. 

The right arm is passed between the rifle and the 
sling, which rests upon the shoulder, piece in rear of 
shoulder, muzzle down and barrel to the rear ; right 
hand steadying the piece. 

On route marches the piece may be slung on either 
shoulder. The gun sling should never be so tightly * 
drawn that it cannot be readily adjusted. 

53. 1. Secure, 2. arms. 

The piece is held in the right hand at the balance, 
barrel down, sloping downward and to the front ; right 
hand supported against the front of the right hip, upper 
arm against the stock. A corresponding position in the 
left hand may be used. 

54. When the recruits are at first exercised in march- 
ing with arms, the instructor orders the pieces in position 
before putting the squad in march, and before passing 
from quick to double time ; he also causes the recruits 
to be at quick time at the right shoulder before ordering 
the halt. 

55. When the marchings and the manual of arms 
are thoroughly understood, the following general rules 
govern : 

(1) If at the order, bring the piece to the right shoulder 
at the first preparatory command for marching. 

(2) A disengaged hand iu double time is held as when 
without arms. 

(3) If at the right shoulder, left shoulder, trail or port 
arms, bring the piece to the order on halting ; the 
execution of the order to begin immediately after halting. 

(4) When the facings, side step, back step, alignments, 
open and close ranks, taking intervals, distances and 
assembling from bayonet exercise, are executed from 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 27 

the order, raise the piece to the trail while in motion 
and resume the order on halting. 

When this applies to other movements it is therein 
stated. 

56. In the battle exercises, or whenever circumstances 
require, the regular positions of the manual of arms 
and the firings may be ordered without regard to the 
previous position of the piece ; such movements as are 
not in the manual will be executed without regard to 
motions or cadence. 

FIRINGS. 

57. The post of the instructor is three paces in rear 
of the squad, but in actual firing he places himself 
where he can best make himself heard and at the same 
time observe the effect of the fire ; the objective should 
be in plain view and so designated as to be easily dis- 
tinguished by all. 

After exercises in firing, before dismissing the squad 
or passing to other instruction, inspection will be made 
to insure that no cartridge is left in chamber or maga- 
zine. 

58. The commands for firing are the same whether 
the squad be standing, kneeling, or lying down. The 
commands for kneeling or lying down precede the com- 
mands for firing. 

59. At the first preparatory command for firing, the 
squad being in line standing, both ranks take the posi- 
tion of load as prescribed in paragraph 28, and the car- 
tridge box, if worn, is slipped to the hip and opened ; at 
the command indicating the distance, the sights are ad- 
justed ; the cartridge box is closed and replaced after 
executing cease firing (par. 62). 

Volley Firing, 

60. The squad being in line fronting the object to be 
fired upon, pieces loaded (and locked) : 1. Fire by squad, 



28 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

2. At (such an object), 3. At (so many) yards, 4. Squad, 

5. READY, 6. AIM, 7. FIRE, 8. LOAD. 

To fire another volley at the same object, but with a 
new line of sight : 1. At (so many) yards, 2. Squad, 

3, AIM, 4. FIRE, 5. LOAD. 

To fire another volley at a new object : 1. At (such an 
object), 2. At (so many) yards, 3. Squad, 4. aim, 5. fire, 

6. LOAD. 

61. The object and range will be indicated in the pre- 
paratory commands for all kinds of fire, as illustrated in 
the preceding examples. 

If the object be at a considerable angle to the front of 
the squad, the instructor will change the front of the 
squad so as to face the object. 

The commands are given at sufficient intervals to allow 
them to be executed as prescribed. The command fire is 
given when the pieces appear to be steady. 

These rules are general. 

To Cease Firinj. 

62. CEASE FIRING. 

Take the position of load, turn the cut-off up, if not 
already there, draw the cartridge, or eject the empty 
shell by drawing the bolt back smartly, close the cham- 
ber, pull the trigger, lower the sight leaf, if raised, and 
take the order, order kneeling, or the position lying 
down, as the case maybe. If standing, the rear rank 
men then step back and cover their file leaders, taking 
the order as prescribed in paragraph 30. 

03. The command (or signal) cease firing is always 
used to stop the firing of whatever kind, and may be 
given at any time after the first preparatory command 
for firing, whether the firing has actually commenced 
or not. 

This rule is general. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 29 



To Fire at Will. 



64. 1. Fire ci Will, 2. At (such an object), 3. At (so 
many) yards, 4. Squad, 5. ready, 6. commence firing. 

At the command commence firing each man independ- 
ently of the others takes careful aim at the object, fires, 
loads, and continues the fire as rapidly as is consistent 
with taking careful aim at each shot. " The men should ' 
be taught to load rapidly and to aim deliberately. 

65. 1. CEASE FIRING, 2. LOAD. 

The firing will stop ; at the second command pieces 
not already there will be brought to the position of load, 
and those not loaded will be loaded. 

This is intended to interrupt the firing, for the pur- 
pose of steadying the men, to change to another method 
of firing, or to retain the pieces loaded for the time be- 
ing, in which latter case the instructor should direct the 
pieces to be locked. 

For this purpose, when the loading is finished he com- 
mands : 1. Lock, 2. pieces. 

Rapid Fire. 

68. This fire is employed under usual conditions for 
ranges within which the trajectory is comparatively 
flat, and the firing should be very effective. 1. Rapid 
fire, 2. At (such an object), 3. At (so many) yards, 
4. Squad, 5. ready. 6. commence firing. 

At the command indicating the distance, if 600 yards 
or less, the sights will be laid ; the firing is executed as 
the firing at wiM, but with as great rapidity as will ad- 
mit of effective aiming* at the object. 

If firing at will, to begin rapid fire : 1. Rapid fire, 2. 
commence firing, when rapid fire is taken up. 

Instruction in the rapid fire should not be given until 
after the fire at will is well executed. 

When the greatest rapidity of fire is desirable, as 
immediately before making, or when resisting an as- 
~26 



30 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

sault, magazine fire is used, and usually in continuation 
of the rapid fire. 

67. To change from the fire at will, or the rapid fire 
to magazine fire : 1. Magazine fire, 2. commence 
firing. The cut-off is turned fully down at the first 
command and the firing* continued without interruption, 
the loading being from the magazine, which will not be 
refilled unless direction has been given therefor. 

In first exercises in magazine fire loading will be done 
from the position of load and after facility is attained 
in handling from the position of aim. Men found 
unable after practice to retain the piece in the position 
of aim for successive loadings and firings with the 
steadiness necessary will be directed to load from the 
position of load. 

68. Whenever magazine fire is used, except in volley 
firing, after the cartridges in the magazine are ex- 
hausted, rapid fire, (loading from the belt) will be taken 
up without command, unless direction otherwise has 
been given. The cut-off is turned up on coming to the 
position of load for loading from the belt. 

69. To use magazine fire directly, instead of in con- 
tinuation of other fire : 1. Magazine fire, 2. At (such 
an object), 3. At (so many) yards, 4. Squad, 5. ready, 

6. COMMENCE FIRING. 

The cut-off is turned fully down at the first command 
on taking the position of load, and the firing is executed 
as the fire at will, the loading being from the magazine. 

To use magazine fire in volley firing : 1. Magazine 
fire, 2. Fire by squad, 3. At (such an objeel), 4, At (so 
m2Lny)yards, 5. Squad, 6. ready, 7. aim, 8. fire, 9. load. 

The cut-off is turned down at the first command on 
taking the position of load. 

To fire further volleys the commands would be as 
prescribed in paragraph 60. 

70. Rules for the application of the different fires 
will be found in the battle exercises. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 31 

71. Owing* to heat caused by continued firing, the 
barrel of the piece and metal parts in front of the 
chamber soon become too hot for handling-. Care 
should then be exercised to confine handling to the 
wooden parts and the metal parts in rear of the chamber. 

Modifications of the Infantry Drill Regulations, the 
Manual of Guard Duty, and rules for compliments, 
accessary to conform to changes in the Manual oi 
Arms, or deemed suitable in connection therewith, are 
prescribed or indicated as follows : 

Drill Regulations. 

The position of carry arms and commands for coming 
to or from the same will be omitted in the regulations 
wherever occurring. 

The method for the rifle salute prescribed by paragraph 
9, of the modified Manual of Arms, will be substituted 
for that of the Drill Regulations for the individual 
salute with arms, the piece being brought to the right 
shoulder, if not already there, preparatory to saluting. 

At formation of the company (par. 187), the first ser- 
geant, before calling the roll causes the rear rank to fall 
back to 36 inches distance, and having called the roll, to 
close again to facing distance, then brings his piece to the 
right shoulder before facing about to salute and report 
the result to the captain ; at parade, at commands by the 
adjutant: 1. First sergeants, 2. Front and center, etc., 
first sergeants bring the piece to the right shoulder at the 
command First sergeants and retain it there until they 
return to their posts; at guard mounting on marching 
details to the parade ground, first sergeants keep the 
piece on the right shoulder on halting the details, and 
until they take post behind their supernumeraries. 

At guard mounting, non-commissioned officers of the 
guard bring the piece to the right shoulder at the 
command non-commissioned officers by the adjutant for 



32 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

bringing them to the front and center, and retain the* 
piece on the shoulder until they take xjosts. 

Paragraph 259: Strike out the word "carry" and 
insert instead the words " right shoulder (or order)." 

At formations of the battalion, regiment, etc., para- 
graphs 260, 371, etc.; at reviews, paragraph 690, etc.; 
parades, paragraph 733, etc. ; guard mounting, paragraph 
720 ; color guard and escort of the color, paragraphs 
499 and 754 ; escorts of honor, paragraph 758 ; funeral 
escort, paragraphs 759, 761, and 767, arms are presented 
from the order ; at reviews they are returned from the 
present to the order ; at formations of the battalion 
and at parades they may be brought from the present 
to the order or to the right shoulder ; at guard mount- 
ing they are brought from the present to the order or 
to the rig'ht shoulder, respectively, according as the 
direction by the officer of the day is to march the guard 
in review or to its post, paragraphs 720 and 725 ; by the 
color guard, and escort of the color, paragraphs 499 and 
754, they are brought from the present to the order; by 
an escort of honor, paragraph 758, from the present to 
the right shoulder ; at funeral ceremonies from the 
present to the right shoulder if the escort is to march 
as indicated in paragraph 759, but if not to march at 
once — as indicated in paragraphs 761 and 767 — from the 
present to the order. 

At guard mounting the eld guard awaits the approach 
of the new guard at the order, and presents arms from 
the order ; the arms of the new guard are brought from 
the right shoulder to port arms when its head is opposite 
the left of the old guard, and to right shoulder arms as 
soon as its rear has passed the right of the old guard, 
arms being brought to the order upon halting in accord- 
ance with the general rule. The old guard is brought 
to order arms after the new guard has passed. The new 
guard having been dressed, arms are presented (par. 
726) by both guards from the order and returned to the 
order from the present. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 33 

The detachments of the old guard having come in a?id 
formed on its left, the old guard is moved forward (par. 
728) with the guide to the right, arms at the right 
shoulder, and brought to port arms after the command 
fours right, and to right shoulder arms after having 
passed the new guard, the latter standing at Dresent 
arms while the old guard is passing. 

At reviews each company is brought to port arms by 
command of its captain " at the point indicated,"' (para- 
graph 867), and the right shoulder arms is resumed, 
successively by companies, when about fifty paces be- 
yond the reviewing^ officer. 

Paragraph 666 is modified to read as follows : 

A non-commissioned officer in command of a company 
retains his post on the right of the right guide when the 
battalion is in line ; he has the post of the captain when 
the battalion is in column. 

At parade, before bringing the company to parade 
rest, he brings his piece to the right shoulder, steps two 
paces to the front and faces to the left ; having given 
his commands he faces to the left, steps to his place in 
rank, comes to the order, faces about and comes to 
parade rest. At inspection, when ranks are open, his 
post is on the right of the ri ,ht guide. 

In exercises in the manual, non-commissioned officers 
commanding companies or platoons, and non-commis- 
sioned officers acting as non-commissioned staff officers 
of a battalion and armed with the rifle, execute only the 
order and parade rest; in rendering honors, the present 
and order ; while marching, the right shoulder and 
port. 

When passing in review, a non-commissioned officer 
commanding a company or platoon executes the rifle 
salute ; when commanding a company or detatchment 
separate from a battalion, or other command, on pass- 
ing the colors or any person entitled to compliment, he 
salutes in the same manner, first bringing his command 
to i)ort arms. 



34 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

489. Being at the order or carry: 1. Present, 2. sword 
(or arms). 

At the command present, raise and carry the sword 
to the front, base of hilt as high as the chin, and six 
inches in front of the neck, edge to the left, point six 
inches further to the front than the hilt, thumb ex- 
tended on the left of the gripe, all the fingers grasping 
the gripe. 

At the command sword, lower the sword, point to the 
front and near the ground, edge to the left, hand by the 
side, thumb on left of gripe, arm extended. 

In rendering honors with troops, officers execute the 
first motion of the salute at the command present, the 
second motion at the command arms; enlisted men 
with the sword drawn execute the first motion at the 
command arms. 

490. 1. Order, 2. SWORDS (or arms). 

Drop the point of the sword to or near the ground 
edge down, thumb on back of gripe. 

Being at the present sword, should the next command 
be order arms, officers execute order swords ; if it be 
right shoulder arms they execute carry swords. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 35 

FOR SPRINGFIELD RIFLE, CALIBER .45. 
INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION WITH ARMS. 

1. The recruit should, as soon as possible, be 
taught the use of his rifle, its care and preservation. 

When fair progress has been made in the individual 
instruction without arms, the recruit will be taught 
the manual of arms; instruction without arms and 
that with arms alternating. 

Fart of each drill with arms should be devoted to 
marching. 

2. The manual of arms is explained for double 
rank, but for the instruction of recruits it is first ex- 
ecuted in single rank, omitting reference to the rear 
rank. 

At the command fall in. the recruits, usually not 
exceeding four, assemble (Par. 20. D. R.) pieces at 
order arms. 

The piece shall not be carried loaded except when 
specially ordered. 

3. To prevent accidents, the chamber will be 
opened (Par. 12) whenever the squad is first formed, 
and again, just before being dismissed. This rule is 
general. 

4. The cadence of the motions is that of quick 
time; the recruits will at first be required to give their 
whole attention to the details of the motions, the 
cadence being gradually acquired as they become ac- 
customed to handling their arms. 

Before requiring recruits to take a position or exe- 
cute a motion for the first time, the instructor will 
execute the same for illustration; after which he will 
cause them to execute it by themselves, then to exe- 
cute it together at command. 

The movements relative to the cartridge, fixing and 
unfixing bayonet, adjusting sight, breaking and 
3c 



36 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

forming stack, are executed with promptness and 
regularity, but not in cadence. 

5. Being at a halt, the movements are, for the pur- 
pose of instruction, divided into motions and executed 
in detail; in this case the command of execution de- 
termines the prompt execution of the first motion, 
and the commands, Two, Three, etc., that of the 
other motions. 

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor 
first cautions: By thz numbers; all movements di- 
vided into motions are then executed as above ex- 
plained until he cautions: Without the numbers; or 
commands movements other than those in the manual 
oi arms. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 37 

MANUAL OF ARMS. 
General Rules. 

1. First. In all positions of the left hand at the bal- 
ance (center of gravity, bayonet unfixed), the thumb 
clasps the piece except in present arms and load, in 
which two positions the thumb is extended along the 
stock; the sling is included in the grasp of the hand. 

Second. In all positions of the piece "diagonally 
across the body," the positions of the piece, left 
arm, and hand, are the same as in port arms. 

Hard. In resuming the order from any position in 
the manual, the motion next to the last concludes 
with the butt of the piece about three inches from the 
ground, the left hand above and near the right, 
steadying the piece, fingers extended and joined, fore- 
arm and wrist straight and inclined downward. 

Fourth. The piece is habitually carried with the 
hammer at the safety notch. 

2. The recruit being in the position of the soldier, 
the instructor will first cause him to place his piece 
in the following position: 

Position of Order Arms. 

The butt rests evenly on the ground, barrel to the 
rear, the toe of the butt on a line with and touching 
the toe of the right shoe, arms hanging naturally, el- 
bows near the body, right hand holding the piece be- 
tween the thumb and fingers, the first two fingers in 
front, the others in rear. 

3. Being at order arms: 1. Present, 2. Arms. 
Carry the piece in front of the center of the body 

with the right hand, barrel to the rear and vertical, 
grasp it with the left hand at the balance, forearm 
horizontal and resting against the body. (Two) 
Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand. 



38 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

1. Order, 2. Arms. 

Let go with the right hand and regrasp the piece 
just above the lower band, back of the hand to the 
right; let go with the left hand, carry the piece with 
the right to the right side, barrel to the rear, hand 
near the thigh, butt about three inches from the 
ground, left hand steadying the piece above the right, 
fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist 
straight and inclined downward. (Two) Lower the 
piece gently to the ground with the right hand, drop 
the left quickly by the side, and take the position of 
order arms. 

4. Being at order arms: 1. Port, 2. Arms. 

Raise and throw the piece diagonally across the 
body, lock plate to the front, grasp it smartly with 
both hands, the right, palm down, at the small of the 
stock; the left, palm up, at the balance, thumb clasp- 
ing the piece, barrel sloping to the left and crossing 
opposite the junction of the neck with the left shoul- 
der; right forearm horizontal; left forearm resting 
against the body; piece near the body. 

In the instruction of the recruit, to prevent inter- 
ference with or apprehension by the man on his left 
especially when bayonets are fixed, care should be 
taken in coming to the position of port arms, and 
like positions of the piece, that the muzzle be not 
swung to the rear nor dropped farther to the left 
than necessary for taking the position. 

Being at port arms: 1. Order, 2. Arms. 

Let go with the right hand, lower and carry the 
piece to the right with the left hand, regrasp it with 
the right just above the lower band, back of hand to 
the froi*t, let go with the left hand, lower and turn 
the piece with the right, bringing the barrel to the 
rear, butt about three inches from the ground, and 
hand near the thigh; steady the piece in this position 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 39 

with the left hand above the right, fingers extended 
and joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclined 
downward. (Two) Lower the piece gently to the 
ground with the right hand, drop the left by the side, 
and take the position of order arms. 

5. Being at present arms: 1. Port. 2. Arms. 
Carry the piece diagonally across the body and take 

the position of port arms. 

Being at port arms: 1. Present, 2. Arms. 

Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the 
center of the body, barrel to the rear, and take the 
position of present arms. 

6. Being at order arms: 1. Eight shoulder, 2. Arms. 
Raise and carry the piece diagonally across the 

body with the right hand, lock plate to the front, 
grasp it at the balance with the left hand, palm up, 
thumb clasping the piece: carry the right hand 
quickly to the butt, embracing it, heel between the 
first two fingers, the thumb and fingers closed on the 
stock, the barrel sloping to the left and crossing op- 
posite the junction of the neck with the left shoulder; 
left forearm resting against the body, the piece, left 
arm, and hand, being in the same position as at port 
arms. (Two) Raise and place the piece on the right 
shoulder, barrel up. trigger guard in the hollow of 
the shoulder, the right elbow against (or near) the 
side, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt, 
the hand directly in front of the elbow; at the same 
time slip the left hand, fingers extended and joined, 
down to the breech block. (Three) Drop the left 
hand by the side. 

Care should be taken in the instruction of recruits 
that in the position of right shoulder arms -the right 
hand is kept directly in front of the elbow, which in- 
sures steadiness of the piece on the shoulder, suffi- 
cient elevation of the muzzle to prevent interference 



40 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

with the men in the rear rank, and uniformity of ap- 
pearance in the position of the piece. 

Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Order, 2. Arms. 

Press the butt down quickly with the right hand 
and throw the piece diagonally across the body, grasp 
it with the left hand at the balance, the position of 
the left arm, hand, and piece, being the same as in 
port arms, the right hand retaining its grasp of the 
butt. (Two) Let go with the right hand, lower and 
carry the piece to the right with the left hand, at the 
same time regrasp the piece with the right just above 
the lower band, back of hand to the front, let go with 
the left hand, lower and turn the piece with the right, 
bringing the barrel to the rear, butt about three 
inches from the ground, and hand near the thigh; 
steady the piece in this position with the left hand 
above the right, fingers extended and joined, fore- 
arm and wrist straight and inclined downward. 
(Three) Lower the piece gently to the ground with 
the right hand, drop the left by the side, and take the 
position of order arms. 

7. Being at port arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. Arms. 

Change the right hand to the butt, heel between 
the first and second fingers, thumb and fingers closed 
on the stock, and place the piece on the right shoul- 
der, barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the 
shoulder, the right elbow against (or near) the side, 
the right hand directly in front of elbow; at the same 
time slip the left hand, fingers extended and joined, 
down to the breech block. (Two) Drop the left hand 
by the side. 

Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. Arms. 

Press the butt down quickly with the right hand 
and throw the piece diagonally across the body, lock 
plate to the front, grasp it with the left hand at the 
balance, as in port arms, the right hand retaining its 



b 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 41 

grasp at the butt. (Two) Change the right hand to 
the small of the stock, and take the position of port 
arms. 

8. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Present, 2. 
Arms. 

Press the butt down quickly with the right hand 
and throw the piece diagonally across the body, lock 
plate to the front, grasp it with the left hand at the 
balance, as in port arms, the right hand retaining its 
grasp of the butt. (Two) Change the right hand to 
the small of the stock and take the position of port 
arms. (Three) Carry the piece to a vertical posi- 
tion in front of the center of the body, barrel to the 
rear, and take the position of present arms. 

Being at present arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. Arms. 

Take the position of port arms. (Two) Change the 
right hand to the butt, heel l>etween the first and 
second fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock, 
and place the piece on the right shoulder, barrel up, 
trigger guard in hollow of the shoulder, the right el- 
bow against (or near) the side, the hand directly in 
front of elbow, at the same time slip the left hand, 
fingers extended and joined, down to the breech 
block. (Three) Drop the left hand by the side. 



Rifle Salute. 

9. Being at right shoulder arms: Carry the left 
hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm hori- 
zontal, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers ex- 
tended and joined, forefinger against the piece. 
(Two) Drop the left hand by the side. 

The first motion of the salute is made six yards be- 
fore passing the officer, holding the hand at the 



42 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

small of the stock until the salute is acknowledged 
or the officer passed. 

Indoors the salute is made from the position of or> 
der arms; carry the left hand smartly to the right 
side, forearm horizontal, or nearly so, palm of the 
hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, 
forefinger against piece. (Two) Drop the left hand 
to the side. 

The rifle salute is prescribed for individual soldiers 
with arms, except sentinels, who salute by present- 
ing arms. 

The Rests. 

10. Fall out, Rest, and At ease are executed as 
without arms. 

On resuming tfcfe attention take the position of or- 
der-arms. 

11. Being at order arms: 1. Parade, 2. Rest. 
Carry the right foot six inches straight to the rear, 

left knee slightly bent, carry the muzzle in front of 
the center of the body, barrel to the left, grasp the 
piece with the left hand just below the stacking 
swivel, and with the right hand below and against 
the left. 

1. Squad, 2. Attention. 

Resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece 
opposite the right breast. 

12. To dismiss the squad. 

The instructor commands: 1. Port, 2. Arms, 3. Dis 

M1SSET. 

When the instruction has progressed to include 
loading, to insure that no cartridge is left in the 
chamber, the instructor commands: 1. Port, 2. Arms, 
3. Open Chamber, 4. Close Chamber, 5. Dismissed. 

After closing the chamber the hammer is brought to 
the safety notch. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 43 

13. Being at order arms: 1. Fix, 2. Bayonet. 

Execute parade rest; grasp the shank of the "bay- 
onet with the right hand; draw the bayonet from the 
scabbard and fix it on the barrel, glancing at the 
muzzle; resume the order. 

14. Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, 2. Bayonet. 
Take the position of parade rest, grasp the shank 

of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, wrest it 
from the barrel, and. glancing at the scabbard, re- 
turn it. the blade passing between the left arm and 
body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and re- 
sume the order. 

15. If marching, the bayonet is fixed or unfixed in 
the most expeditious and convenient maimer, and 
the piece returned to the position in which it was 
when the order to fix or unfix bayonet was given. 

16. Being at order arms, bayonet fixed: 1. Charge, 
2. Bayonet. 

Half face to the right, carrying the right heel six 
inches to the rear and three inches to the right of the 
left heel, at the same time raise the piece with the 
right hand inclining the barrel to the front, grasp it 
with the left at the balance, back of hand down, 
thumb clasping piece, elbow against the body, grasp 
the small of the stock with the right hand and bring 
the point of the bayonet to the height of the chin, 
right hand supporting the stock firmly against the 
front of right hip, the body inclining slightly for- 
ward. 

1, Order, 2. Arms. 

Face to the front, at the same time let go the piece 
with the right hand and lower it to the right side 
with left hand, regrasp it with the right just above 
the lower band, back of hand to the right, and lower 
the piece, bringing the butt about three inches from 
the ground and hand near the thigh: steady the piece 



44 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

in this position, with the left hand above the right, 
fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist 
straight and inclined downward. (Two) Lower the 
piece gently to the ground with the right hand, drop 
the left by the side, and take the position of order 
arms. 

17. Being at port arms, bayonet fixed: 1. Charge, 
2. Bayonet. 

Half face to the right, carrying the right heel six 
inches to the rear and three inches to the right of the 
left heel, and at the same time bring the piece to the 
position of charge bayonet. 

To resume port arms: 1. Port, 2. Arms. 

Face to the front, and at the same time take the po- 
sition of port arms. 

18. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Charge, 2. 
Bayonet. 

Press the butt down quickly with the right hand 
and throw the piece diagonally across the body, lock 
plate to the front, grasp it with the left hand, as in 
port arms, the right hand retaining its grasp of the 
butt. (Two) Change the right hand to the small of 
the stock. (Three) Half face to the right, carrying 
the right heel six inches to the rear and three inches 
to the right of the left heel, and at the same time 
bring the piece down to the right side and take the 
position of charge bayonet. 

Being at charge bayonet: 1. Right shovlder, 2. Arms. 

Face to the front and at the same time take the 
position of port arms. (Two) Change the right hand 
to the butt, heel between the first and second fingers, 
thumb and fingers closed on the stock, and place the 
piece on the right shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard 
in the hollow of the shoulder, the right elbow against 
(or near) the side, the hand directly in front of the 
elbow, at the same time slip the left hand, fingers 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 40 

extended and joined, down to the breech block. 
(Three) Drop the left hand to the side. 

Positions Kneeling and Lying Down. 

19. The movements of kneeling, lying down, and 
rising, are first taught without arms; they are exe- 
cuted as with arms, except that in the position kneel- 
ing the right hand rests on the right thigh, and in 
moving to and from the lying position the right hand 
is placed on the ground: in the position lying down 
the forearms are against each other on the ground, 
left arm in front. 

At the command kneel, lie down, or rise, the ham- 
mer will be brought to the safety notch, if not al- 
ready there. This ride is general. 

20. Being at order arms: Kneel. 

Each front rank man half faces to the right, car- 
rying the right foot so that the toe shall be about 
ten inches to the rear and ten inches to the left of the 
left heel: kneel on right knee, bending the left, left 
toe slightly inclined to the right, right leg pointing 
directly to the right: weight of body resting OD right 
heel; place left forearm across left thigh, hand hang- 
ing naturally: the piece remains in the position of 
order arms, right hand grasping it above the balance. 
Tins is the position of order kneeling. 

Each rear rank man steps off obliquely to the right 
with the left foot, planting the toe opposite the mid- 
dle of the interval to his right and in line with the 
left heel of his front rank man; at the same time 
placing the butt of his piece against his left foot, the 
toe of butt in line with toe of foot; he then kneels 
as prescribed for the front rank. 

21. Being at the order kneeling: Rise. 

Rise and take the position of order arms; the rear 
rank men covering their file leaders. 
27 



46 SCHOOL OF Tht SOLDIER. 

22. Being at the order kneeling: Lie Down. 
Each front rank man places the right knee against 

the left heel. (Two) Draw back the left foot and 
place the knee on the ground; place the left hand well 
forward on the ground and lie flat on the belly, thus 
inclining the body about thirty-five degrees to the 
right; the piece is lowered at the same time with 
the right hand, toe resting on the ground, barrel up, 
muzzle off the ground, left hand at the balance, left 
elbow on the ground, right hand at the small of the 
stock, opposite the neck. This is the position lying 
doicn. 

The rear rank men move back thirty-six inches in 
the most convenient manner without rising, and lie 
down as prescribed for the front rank. 

23. Being in the position lying down: Rise. 
Place the left hand on the ground and raise the 

body on the knees; draw up and place the left foot 
by the side of the right knee, raise and place the 
piece in the position of the order kneeling. (Two) 
Rise and take the position of order arms; the rear 
rank men close to facing distance on their file lead- 
ers. 

24. Being at the order standing: Lie Down. 
Each front rank man takes the position of order 

kneeling, except that the right knee is placed against 
the left heel. (Two) Draw back the left foot and 
place the knee on the ground; place the left hand well 
forward on the ground and lie flat on the belly, thus 
inclining the body about thirty-five degrees to the 
right; the piece is lowered at the same time with the 
right hand, toe resting on the ground, barrel up, muz- 
zle off the ground, left hand at the balance, left el- 
bow on the ground, right hand at the small of the 
stock opposite the neck. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 47 

The rear rank men step back thirty-six inches and 
lie down as prescribed for the front rank. 

25. Being in the position lying down: Kneel. 
Place the left hand on the ground and raise the 

body on the knees; draw up and place the left foot 
by the side of the right knee, raise and place the 
piece in the position of the order kneeling; the rear 
rank men take the position of the order kneeling and 
then move forward thirty-six inches in the most con- 
venient manner without rising. 

To Load. 

26. The recruits are at first taught to load and fire 
without using cartridges; after a few lessons they 
should use dummy cartridges, and when well in- 
structed, the drill may close with a few rounds of 
blank cartridges. 

27. No cartridges will be used, except when indi- 
cated by the words with dummy (blank or ball) car- 
tridges, preceding the command Load. Tliis rule is 
general. 

28. Being in line, standing at the order: 1. Squad, 
2. Load. 

At the command Load, each rear rank man steps 
off obliquely to the right with the left foot, planting 
the toe opposite the middle of the interval to his 
right and in line with the left heel of his front rank 
man; the front rank men half face to the right; both 
ranks then carry the right heel six inches to the rear 
and three inches to the right of the left heel, feet 
nearly at right angles, and at the same time raise the 
piece with the right hand and drop it into the left at 
the balance, muzzle at the height of the chin, left 
elbow against the body, small of the stock at the 
waist. Look toward the chamber, half cock the piece 
rind open the chamber: (slip the cartridge box, if 



48 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDER. 

worn, to the right hip and open,) take a cartridge 
between the thumb and first two fingers and place it 
in the bore; press it home, close the chamber, carry 
the right hand to the small of the stock, and carry the 
eyes to the front. This position is designated for 
reference as that of load, the piece being loaded and 
the hammer at the half cock. 

If kneeling the position of the piece is similar— the 
left forearm rests on the left thigh, the left hand 
grasping the piece at the balance and the muzzle is 
at the height of the chin. 

If lying down the left hand steadies the piece at 
the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, 
the muzzle off the ground. 

When lying down in double rank the rear rank 
men do not load. 

The piece being in the position of load, that is 
with the hammer at the half cock, is brought to the 
re&dy by the command: 1. Squad, 2. Ready. 

At the second command cock the piece with the 
right thumb and return the hand to the small of the 
stock. 

29. Being in any position, pieces loaded: 1. Draw, 
2 Cartridge. 

Take the position of load if not already there ; 
open the chamber gently to avoid complete ejection 
of the cartridge from the chamber, take and return 
cartridge to box or belt, close chamber, bring ham- 
mer to safety notch, and carry the right hand to the 
small of the stock. 

30. Pieces loaded, and being in the position of load 
or at the ready, to order arms: 1. Order, 2. Arms. 

At the command Arms, bring the hammer to the 
safety notch, take the position of order arms, the 
front rank men similarly as from charge bayonet; the 
rear rank men raise the muzzles of their pieces (to 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 49 

clear the front rank men), step back and cover their 
file leaders, at the same time bringing the piece to 
the position of order arms. 

If kneeling, both ranks take the order kneeling. 

If sights are raised (par. 37) they should be laid 
down at the first command. 

Cartridge boxes, if used, are closed after executing 
the order, order kneeling, position lying down, or 
cease firing (par. 59). 

31. Being at the ready: Aim. 

Raise the piece with both hands and support the 
butt firmly against the hollow 7 of the right shoulder, 
right thumb extended across the stock inclined for- 
ward and diagonally to the left, barrel horizontal; 
slip the left hand back to the guard, little finger rest- 
ing against the bottom of the thumb piece of the 
cam latch, left elbow vesting against the body, and 
as far to the right as it can be placed with ease, right 
elbow as high as the shoulder; incline the head 
slightly forward and a little to the right, cheek 
against the stock, left eye closed, right eye looking 
through the notch of the rear sight so as to perceive 
the top of the front sight; second joint of forefinger 
resting lightly against the front of the trigger, but 
not pressing it. 

Each rear rank man aims through the interval at 
the right of his file leader, and inclines slightly for- 
ward, to advance the muzzle of his piece beyond the 
front rank. When lying down in double rank, the 
rear rank men do not aim nor fire. 

32. In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the 
left knee, point of elbow in front of kneecap. 

in aiming lying down, raise the piece with both 
hands and slip it through the left to the trigger 
guard; rest on both elbows and press the butt firmly 
against the right shoulder. 



50 school of the soldier. 

33. Fire. # 
Press the finger against the trigger; fire without 

deranging the aim, and without lowering or turning 
the piece. 

34. Load. 

Lower the piece to the position of load, and load. 

35. The exercise is continued by the command: 1. 
Squad 2. Ready, 3. Aim, 4. Fire, 5. Load. 

If the instructor does not wish the pieces to be re- 
loaded after firing, in place of the command Load 
he commands: 1. Order, 2. Arms. 

At the command Order, bring the piece to the 
position of load, eject the empty shell by opening the 
chamber, close the chamber, bring the hammer to 
the safety notch, lower the sight leaf, if raised and 
carry the right hand to the small of the stock; at the 
command Arms take the position of order arms, 
the front rank men similarly as from charge bayonet; 
the rear rank men raise the muzzle of their pieces 
(to clear the front rank men), step back and cover 
their file leaders, at the same time bringing the piece 
to the position of order arms. 

If kneeling both ranks take the order kneeling. 

30. To accustom the recruits in the position of aim, 
to await the command Fire: 1. Recover, 2. Arms. 

At the command Recover* withdraw the finger 
from the trigger; at the command Arms, take the po- 
sition of load, the piece being retained at the ready. 

In recovering arms when kneeling or lying down, 
the piece is brought to the position for loading kneel- 
ing, or lying down, respectively. 

37. When the recruits are thoroughly instructed in 
the adjustments of the sight and the principles of 
aiming as laid down in the "Firing Regulations for 
Small Arms," they will be required to aim, using the 
graduations of the rear sight corresponding to the 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 51 

distances indicated. For this purpose the instructor 
commands: 1. At (so many) yards, 2. Squad, 3. Ready, 
4. Aim. 

At the first command, both ranks take the position 
of load and adjust the sight with the right hand. 

The instructor assures himself by careful inspec- 
tion that each man sets his sight at the range indi- 
cated; when satisfied that the subject is fully com- 
prehended, he will exercise the men in aiming at a 
designated object. For this purpose he commands: 

1. At that tree (or At ), 2. At (so many) yards, 

3. Squad, 4. Ready, 5. Aim. 

At the first command, both ranks take the position 
of load and fix the eyes on the object indicated; at 
the second command adjust the sight and immedi- 
ately fix the eyes upon the object again. 

38. The distance announced in the command should 
be, as nearly as possible, the true distance of the ob- 
ject indicated. 

The men should be practiced in aiming at objects 
above and below them. 

39. Being at order arms: 1. Open, 2. Boxes. 
Steady the piece by grasping it with the left hand 

just below the stacking swivel, forearm against the 
body; open the box with the right hand and resume 
the order. 

In a similar manner each man. as his box is in- 
spected, closes it and resumes the order. 

40. Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. Arms. 

At the command Arms, bayonets are fixed and 
cartridge boxes opened. 

Each man, as the inspector approaches him, exe- 
cutes port arms, oven chamber. 

The inspector takes the piece with the right hand, 
grasping it just below the lower band, back of hand 
down (the man dropping the hands bv the side), in- 
4d 



52 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

spects it, and hands it back in the position ia which 
received. The man receives it with the left nand at 
the balance, closes chamber, brings the hammer to the 
safety notch, resumes port arms, comes to order arms, 
and unfixes bayonet. 

As the inspector returns the piece the next man ex- 
ecutes inspection arms, and so on through the squad. 
Should the piece be inspected without handling, the 
man closes chamber, brings the hammer to the safety 
notch, grasps the piece with the right hand at the small 
of the stock, comes to order arms, and unfixes, baronet, 
when the inspector passes to the next man who im- 
mediately executes inspection arms. 

41. The inspection of the arms begins on the right, 
after which the inspector may pass in rear and in- 
spect boxes from left to right. 

Boxes are closed as soon as inspected. 

Stack Arms. 

42. Three pieces only are used in making a stack: 
pieces not so used «are, in this connection, termed 
loose pieces. 

Preparatory to stacking arms, the squad must have 
counted fours and must be in line at the order. 

43. 1. Stack, 2. Arms. 

At the command Stock, each even number of the 
front rank raises his piece with the right hand, grasps 
it with the left at the upper band, and rests the butt 
between his feet, barrel to the front, muzzle inclining 
slightly to the front and opposite the center of the 
interval on his right, the thumb and forefinger rais- 
ing the stacking swivel; each even number of the 
rear rank then passes his piece, barrel to the rear, 
to his file leader, who grasps it between the bands 
with his right hand and throws the butt about 
twenty-eight inches in advance of his own and oppo- 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 53 

site th^raiddle of the interval, the right hand slipping 

the upper band, the rhumb and forefinger raising 

the stacking swivel, which he engages with that of 

his own pi- h odd number of the front rank 

raises his piece with the right hand, carries it well 

ward, barrel to the front, the left hand guiding 

the stacking swivel, engages the lower hook of the 

swivel of his own piece with the free hook of that 

~lie even number of the rear rank: he then turns 

the barrel outward into the angle formed by the other 

two pieces and holds the butt about four inches above 

the ground aod six inches in front of the line of the 

At the command Arms, each odd number of the 
front rank lowers the butt of his piece to the ground. 

The stacks being formed, the pieces of the odd nuin- 
s in the rear rank are pi n num- 

bers in the front rank, who lay them on the stacks. 
The pieces of the guides ana the tile elosers are laid 
on the stacks at the same time. 

Each man. on finishing handling pieces, takes the 
-ition of the soldier. 

The instructor may then rest or dismiss the squad, 
leaving the arms stacked. 

On assembling, the men take their places in rear 
of the stacks. 

44. l. Arms. 

At the command Take, the loose pieces are returned 
by the even numbers: each even number of the front 
rank then grasps his own piece with the left hand, 
the piece of his rear rank man with his risrht hand, 
grasping both between the bands: each odd number 
of the front rank grasps his piece in the same way 
with the right hand. 

At the command Arms, each odd number of the 
front rank disengages his own piece by raising the 



54 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

butt from the ground and then turning the niece to 
the right, detaching the piece from the stack; each 
even number of the front rank disengages and de- 
taches his piece by turning it to the left, and then 
passes the piece of his rear rank man to him, and 
all resume the order. 

Unless care is taken by the odd number to hold 
and place the butt of his piece in front of the line 
of the toes, there is danger that the front sight will 
be caught and bent by the ramrod of the piece of the 
even number on turning the piece to make or break 
the stack. 

Should any four have numbers two and three blank 
files, number one rear rank will take the place of 
number two rear rank in making and breaking the 
stack; the stacks made or broken, he resumes his 
post. 

45. Being in single rank, arms are stacked and 
taken on the same principles as in the double rank; 
at the preparatory command number three steps back 
and covers number two; numbers two and three ex- 
ecute what has been explained for the even numbers 
of the front and rear rank, respectively; number 
three then resumes his place; number one uses his 
piece as explained for the odd number of the front 
rank. The piece of number four is passed as ex- 
plained for the odd numbers of the rear rank. 

Like precaution as in double rank should be used 
in making and breaking stack to avoid injury to the 
sights. 

46. The following positions of the piece are in- 
tended mainly for use in extended order and route 
marches. Whenever the commands for any of these 
are given, the piece will be shifted in the most con- 
venient manner, but for desirable uniformity in the 
method of carrying the piece from the right shoulder 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 55 

to the left shoulder and return when in close order, 
the method therefor is prescribed in paragraph 48. 

47. 1. Trail, 2. Arms. 

The piece is grasped with the right hand just above 
the balance, right arm slightly bent, barrel up, muzzle 
inclined slightly to the front. 

When it can be done without danger or inconven- 
ience to others, as on the firing line, the piece may be 
grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered until 
the piece is horizontal: a similar position in the left 
hand may be used in like case. 

The piece should be brought to the position of trail 
arms on coming in doors. 

48. Being at right shoulder arms: 

1. Left shoulder, 2. Arms. Press the butt down 
quickly with the right hand and bring the piece to 
nearly a vertical position without lowering it. grasp 
it with the left hand at the small of the stock and 
carry and place the piece on the left shoulder, barrel 
up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder: re- 
place the right hand at the butt with the left hand, 
heel between the first and second fingers, thumb and 
fingers closed on the stock, elbow near the body, hand 
directly in front of the elbow, and drop the right 
hand by the side. 

1. Right shoulder, 2. Arms. Press the butt down 
quickly with the left hand and bring the piece to 
nearly a vertical position without lowering it, grasp 
it with the right hand at the small of the stock, and 
carry and place the piece on the right shoulder, bar- 
rel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder: 
replace the left hand at the butt with the right hand, 
and take the position of right shoulder arms. 

49. 1. Sling, 2. Arms. 

The right arm is passed between the rifle and the 
sling which rests upon the shoulder, piece in rear of 



56 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

shoulder, muzzle down and barrel to the rear; right 
hand steadying the piece. 

On route marches the piece may be slung on either 
shoulder. The gun sling should never be so tightly 
drawn that it cannot be readily adjusted. 

50. 1. Secure, 2 Arms. 

The piece is held in the right hand at the balance, 
barrel down, sloping downward and to the front; 
right hand supported against the front of the right 
hip, upper arm against the stock. A corresponding 
position in the left hand may be used. 

51. When the recruits are first exercised in march- 
ing with arms, the instructor orders the pieces in po- 
sition before putting the squad in march, and before 
passing from quick to double time; he also causes the 
recruits to be at quick time at the right shoulder be- 
fore ordering the halt. 

52. When the marchings and the manual of arms 
are thoroughly understood, the following general 
rules govern: 

(1) If at the order, bring the piece to the right 
shoulder at the first preparatory command for march- 
ing. 

(2) A disengaged hand in double time is held as 
when without arms. 

(3) If at the right shoulder, left shoulder, trail, or 
port arms, bring the piece to the order on halting; 
hie execution of the order to begin immediately after 
halting. 

(4) When the facings, side step, back step, align- 
ments, open and close ranks, taking intervals, dis- 
tances, and assembling from bayonet exercise, are 
executed from the order, raise the piece to the trail 
While in motion and resume the order on halting. 

When this applies to other movements it is therein 
'stated. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 57 

53. In the battle exercises, or whenever circum- 
stances require, the regular positions of the manual 
of arms and the firings may be ordered without re- 
gard to the previous position of the piece; such move- 
ments as are not in the manual will be executed 
without regard to motions or cadence. 

FIRINGS. 

54. The post of the instructor is three paces in rear 
of the squad, but in actual firing he places himself 
where he can best make himself heard and at the 
same time observe the effect of the fire; the objective 
should be in plain view and so designated as to be 
easily distinguished by all. 

After exercises in firing, before dismissing the 
squad or passing to other instruction, inspection will 
be made to insure that no cartridge is left in chamber. 

55. The commands for firing are the same whether 
the squad be standing, kneeling, or lying down. The 
commands for kneeling or lying down precede the 
commands for firing. 

56. At the first preparatory command for firing, 
the squad being in line standing, both ranks take the 
position of load as prescribed in paragraph 28, and 
the cartridge box. if worn, is slipped to the hip and 
opened; at the command indicating the distance, the 
sights are adjusted; the cartridge box is closed and 
replaced after executing cease firing (par. 59). 

Volley Firing. 

57. The squad being in line fronting the object to 
be fired upon, pieces loaded: 1. Fire by squad, 2. At 
(such an object), 3. At (so many) yards, 4. Squad, 5. 
Ready, 6. Aim, 7. Fire, 8. Load. 

To fire another volley at the same object, but with 
a new line of sight: i. At (so man v) yards, 2. Squad, 
3. Ready, 4. Aim, 5. Fire. 6. Load. 



58 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

To fire another volley at a new object: 1. At (sucb 
an object), 2. At (so many) yards, 3. Squad, 4. Ready } 
5. Aim, (5. Fire, 7. Load. 

58. The object and range will be indicated in the 
preparatory commands for all kinds of fire, as illus- 
trated in the preceding examples. 

If the object be at a considerable angle to the front 
of the squad, the instructor will change the front of 
the squad so as to face the object. 

The commands are given at sufficient intervals to 
allow them to be executed as prescribed. The com- 
mand fire is given when the pieces appear to be 
steady. 

These rules are general. 

To Cease Firing. 

59. Cease Firing. 

Take the position of load, if not already there, draw 
the cartridge, or eject the empty shell by opening the 
chamber, close the chamber, bring the hammer to 
the safety notch, lower the sight leaf, if raised, aud 
take ihe order, order kneeling, or the position lying 
down, as the case may be. If standing, the rear rank 
men then step back and cover their file leaders, tak- 
ing the order as prescribed in paragraph 30. 

(K). The command (or signal) cease firing is always 
used to stop the firing of whatever kind, and may be 
given at any time after the first preparatory com- 
mand for firing, whether the firing has actually com- 
menced or not. 

TJiis ride is general. 

To Fire at Will. 

61. 1. Fire at Will, 2. At (such an object), 3. At 
(so many) yards, 4. Squad, 5. Ready 6. Commence 
Firing. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 59 

At the command commence firing each man inde- 
pendently of the others takes careful aim at the ob- 
ject, tires, loads and continues the tire as rapidly as 
is consistent with taking careful aim at each shot. 
The men should be taught to load rapidly and to aim 
deliberately. 

62. 1. Cease Firing, 2. Load. 

The firing will stop; at the second command pieces 
not already there will be brought to the position of 
load, and those not loaded will be loaded. 

This is intended to interrupt the firing, for the pur- 
pose of steadying the men, to change to another meth- 
od of firing, or to retain the pieces loaded for the 
time being, in which latter case the instructor should 
direct the hammers to be brought to the safety notch. 

Rapid Fire. 

63. This fire is employed under usual conditions 
for ranges within which the trajectory is compara- 
tively flat, and the firing should be very effective. 

1. Rapid fire, 2. At (such an object), 3. At (so many) 
yards, 4. Squad, 5. Ready, 6. Commence Firing. 

At the command indicating the distance, if 600 
yarus or less, the sights will be laid; the firing is ex- 
ecuted as the firing at will, but with as great rapid- 
ity as will admit of effective aiming at the object. 

If firing at will, to begin rapid fire: 1. Rapkl fire, 

2. Commence Firing, when rapid fire is taken up. 
Instruction in the rapid fire should not be given 

until after the fire at will is well executed. 

To fire further volleys the commands would be as 
prescribed in paragraph 57. 

64. Rules for the application of the different fires 
will be found in the battle exercises. 



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